Modeling Six Universal Emotions

Psychological research has classfied six facial expressions which correspond to distinct universal emotions: disgust, sadness, happiness,fear,anger, surprise[Black,Yacoob,95]. It is interesting to note that four out of the six are negative emotions. We have generalized the cues for facial expression as suggested by Ekman and Friesen in the table below. We create all expressions via applying a sequential combination of linear or sphincter muscles over the appropriate bounding boxes. We drop the jaw open by applying the linear muscle over a bounding box around the lower jaw. The bounding boxes for disgust(left) and anger(right) are shown above in red for linear muscles, and blue for the sphincter muscles.

Happiness raising and lowering of mouth corners 6 linear muscles
Sadness lowering of mouth corners
raise inner portion of brows
6 linear muscles
Surprise brows arch
eyes open wide to expose more white
jaw drops slightly
3 linear muscles
Fear brows raised
eyes open
mouth opens slightly
5 linear muscles
1 sphincter for the mouth
Disgust upper lip is raised
nose bridge is wrinkled
cheeks raised
6 linear muscles
Anger brows lowered
lips pressed firmly
eyes bulging
4 linear muscles
1 sphincter for the mouth

What remains beyond this point is the result of a trial-and-error process as time permitted to produce the most convincing animations.

sadness Mpeg hapiness Mpeg disgust Mpeg
fear Mpeg surprise Mpeg anger Mpeg

In addition, any of the above expressions can be emphasized with dilating or contracting pupils, shifting and rolling eyes.

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